What is inductive effect?

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An inductive effect is simply the shifting of electrons in a sigma  bond in response to the electronegativity of nearby atoms. Metals, such as lithium and magnesium, inductively donate electrons, whereas reactive nonmetals, such as oxygen and nitrogen, inductively withdraw electrons. Inductive  effects play a major role in understanding chemical reactivity, and we’ll use them many times throughout this text to explain a variety of chemical phenomena.

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